Types of orchids such as Dendrobium, Phalaenopsis, Vanda, Oncidium, Catleya, Cymbidium, phaphiopidium and so on are found in Indonesia. Orchids are a popular ornamental plant. Types of orchids such as Dendrobium, Phalaenopsis, Vanda, Oncidium, Catleya, Cymbidium, phaphiopidium and so on are found in Indonesia. However, only three types of orchids are commonly known to the public, namely Dendrobium, Phalaenopsis and Vanda. In fact, these three types of orchids have been commercialized by both small-scale ornamental plant traders and larger growers. Here are a few things to consider before cultivating orchids, quoted from the website of the Research and Development Agency of the Ministry of Agriculture (Balitbangtan):
Based on their growth patterns, orchids can be divided into two types, namely, sympodial and moponopodial types. The sympodial type is an orchid that does not have a main stem, where the flowers emerge from the tip of the stem such as Dendrobium, Catleya, or come out of the side of mature psedobulbs such as Oncidium and Cymbidium. The monopodial type is an orchid whose growth is straight up on one stem, the flowers come out of the side of the stem between the two axillary leaves. For example Vanda, Arachnis, Renanthera and Aranthera. According to Hawkes (1965) based on their habitat, orchids are divided into four groups, namely:
Efifit orchid group, orchids that grow on other trees without harming the host plant and are protected from direct sunlight. Examples: Catleya, Dendrobium, Phalaenopsis and Oncidium The group of terrestrial orchids, orchids that grow on the ground and need direct sunlight. For example Vanda, Aranthera, Renathera and Arachnis. The lithophyte orchid group, an orchid that grows on rock and tolerates full sun. For example Dendrobium Phalaenopsis. Saprophytic orchid group, orchids that grow on media containing humus or dry leaves and require little sunlight. For example Goodyera sp. Factors affecting the growth of orchids:
The height of the place
Altitude is the main factor that determines the success of orchid plant growth. In addition, environmental factors such as temperature, sunlight and humidity also greatly affect the growth of orchids that will be cultivated.
The height of each orchid is not the same. Some orchids do well in the highlands, but others will thrive in the lowlands. But there are several types of orchids that can grow and flower in low to medium areas. Dendrobium can grow and flower in areas with an altitude between 0 – 600 masl, Phalaenopsis grows well in the highlands, while Vanda will thrive in the lowlands.
Based on the altitude, the temperature requirements for each type of orchid are also different. Air temperature greatly affects the metabolic processes of plants.
High temperatures cause the metabolic process to take place quickly, whereas at low temperatures the metabolic process occurs very slowly. Based on temperature requirements, Sessler (1978) in Widiastoety (1997) divides orchid plants into three groups:
Cold type orchids, require temperatures of 13-18 C at night and day temperatures between 18-21 C (Cymbidium, Phalaenopsis)
Medium orchids, night temperature 18-20 C and daytime 27-29 C (Dendrobium, Cattleya, Oncidium)
Warm type orchids, night temperature 21-24 C, 24-30 C in the daytime (Vanda, Arachnis, Renanthera)
Generally, the humidity that orchids need is relative humidity (RH) ranging from 60-85%. The humidity should not be too high at night, and not too low during the day. To keep humidity stable, it can be tricked by watering it with a mist spraying system using a sprayer. Too high humidity at night can be overcome by reducing watering, whereas too low humidity during the day can be treated with wetter watering.
The need for sunlight for each orchid is different, depending on the genus and its relatives. Orchids from the Vanda group, especially those for teret and semi teret types, which are found in lowland areas, require more radiation intensity than other orchids.
Meanwhile, the Dendrobium group requires sunlight intensity between 50-60%. The Phalaenopsis group wants lower light, because this group requires a more shady and humid environment, as well as good air circulation.
In orchid cultivation, plant maintenance is carried out depending on the type of orchid being kept. In addition, in general, advanced orchid growers or growers have their own methods of caring for these plants. However, most orchid plant maintenance includes the use of growing media, watering, fertilizing, and controlling the environment and plant pests.