Soil is an abiotic component that makes up the terrestrial ecosystem. How does this land exist because it is composed of layers of soil, thus the land cannot be separated from humans. There are various types of soil, including clay, podsol soil, lithosol soil, latosol soil, laterite soil, peat soil, and so on. Each of these lands has its own characteristics and has different benefits or functions. Each region also has different types of soil, depending on its respective geographic location. On this occasion we will discuss about clay, its benefits and also its types.

Clay is a type of soil found in Indonesia in large quantities. Luat land is widely used by humans to make various kinds of crafts, such as flower vases, jugs, grubs, and so on. Clay is also widely used to make bricks and roof tiles. This clay has various types. We can know the types of clay by paying attention to the characteristics of the soil. Several types of clay include the following:

Primary Clay

Types of clay can be divided into two types, namely primary clay and secondary clay. Primary clay is clay that comes from the weathering of feldspatic rocks which is produced by endogenous energy that does not move from the source rock or the original rock. Primary clay is also known as residual clay. Secondary clays are purer than secondary clays. This is because the primary clay does not move from its original place, namely the rock that has weathered.

Primary clay has several features or characteristics that distinguish it from secondary clay. Some of the features or characteristics possessed by primary clay include the following:

  • Has purer properties, this is because primary clay does not move from the place where it was formed
  • Dull in color or dull white, this is because the primary clay is not mixed with organic materials such as humus, twigs or rotten leaves.
  • Has a ripe temperature that ranges from 13,000 ° – 14,000 ° C, and some even reach 17,500 ° C
  • Tends to be coarse grained
  • Has high melting power
  • Has little shrinkage
  • Has fire retardant properties
  • Not elastic

Those are some of the features or characteristics possessed by primary clay. The formation of this primary clay cannot be separated from the role of hydropower and also the steam power released from within the earth. When it is dry, the primary clay will easily become brittle and ground into flour. This happens because the primary clay particles are asymmetrical and angular. Included in this primary clay include: Kaolin, Bentonite, Feldspatik, Quartz, Dolomite, and soils that are at high altitudes.

Secondary Clay

Apart from primary clay, the next type of soil is secondary clay. Secondary clay is also called sediment or sediment. Secondary clay is clay resulting from weathering of feldspatic rocks which move away from the parent rock because it is carried by exogenous forces, causing the grains of the clay to escape and settle in areas such as valleys, rivers, swamps, or lakes.

Secondary clay is more abundant than primary clay. To find out secondary clay, we can see from the characteristics of this soil. Some of the characteristics or characteristics possessed by secondary clay include the following:

  • Has less pure properties, this is because this secondary clay has shifted away from the rock of origin, which is weathered so that its purity has been lost or reduced.
  • The colors are beige, gray, brown, red, pink / yellow, light yellow, brownish yellow, reddish, blackish and so on. These colors are formed as a result of the clay mixing with organic and inorganic materials so that the color changes.
  • Tends to be fine grained
  • Plastic
  • Has high shrinkage

So, those are the characteristics of secondary clay. Secondary clay can be divided into various types, namely as follows:

  • Refractory clay / Fireclay
  • Stoneware clay
  • Ballclay
  • Earthenware clay
  • Monmorilinite clay

Different types of secondary clay have their own properties and of course different benefits. As for the benefits of clay in general, we will discuss it below.

Benefits of Clay

Clay is found in many areas in Indonesia. Clay is also widely used for various purposes. The benefits of clay include:

  • As a raw material for making pottery
  • Bricks raw material
  • House tiles raw materials
  • Raw materials for other handicrafts

Those are some types of clay and its benefits. Apart from the entertainment benefits above, clay also has many other benefits. Thus information about clay, hopefully useful.