Before we look at a good harvest, it’s a good idea to know how to grow coffee so that it can produce maximum coffee. If you have found the type of coffee that matches the location of the land, let us consider the following explanation
The initial stage of how to grow coffee is knowing what type of coffee is suitable for you to grow in your area, for example Arabica coffee is suitable for planting at an altitude of> 800 m asl and robusta coffee is suitable for planting at an altitude of 400-800 m asl. However, don’t worry for those of you who have low land planting areas with an altitude below 400 m above sea level. Actually, coffee plants can still grow and bear fruit, but maybe the original size and taste of the coffee beans will be slightly different. In general, the criteria for land suitable for growing coffee are as follows:
- The location is slightly shaded (not exposed to direct sunlight for more than 6 hours)
- Has a tropical climate
- Has a soil acidity (pH) from 5.5 to 6.5
- Has enough nutrients
- Loose soil
Planting Shade Trees (Light Barriers)
Because the coffee plant is a plant that requires cool conditions and is not exposed to direct sunlight, it requires plants to be used as shade. To choose a good shade tree, you should choose a fast growing tree with a leaf intensity that is not too dense. Plant varieties suitable for shade are lamtoro and sengon
Buy lamtoro or sengon seeds then plant them in the land neatly and form grooves. Wait until the size grows tall and begins to create a shady atmosphere in the planting area. Usually this takes 2 years. the next step for how to grow good and correct coffee is to find superior coffee seeds. You can find this information at the Coffee and Cocoa Research Center or even ask a shop that sells seeds to get superior quality seeds
Cultivation of Planted Land
If the shade trees have grown tall and protect the planting area from direct sunlight, then the processing of the land for planting coffee can be started. You must prepare the land with loose and fertile soil. The sequence of tillage is as follows:
- First, make a planting hole with a size of about 30 x 30 cm and a depth of 30 cm as well
- Make other planting holes that are spaced so that they are neat
- The minimum distance between holes is 2 m
- Clean the planting hole using bactericide and fungicide
- After this, the hole can be given basic fertilizer.
Provision of Basic Fertilizer
After the planting hole is ready, the next step is to apply basic fertilizer. We recommend that 2 months before planting coffee prepare the basic fertilizer. This is an important part of how to grow coffee because this basic fertilizer will be used to provide the main nutrient supply for the coffee plant during its lifetime. The basic fertilizer used is organic fertilizer, which can be manure, organic fertilizer or organic fertilizer which is usually sold in agricultural stores. It is best to mix compost with manure. The ratio of the mixture can be 1: 1 or 1: 2.
The way of giving is as follows:
- Mix compost with manure until evenly distributed
- Enter the fertilizer into the planting hole
- Flush EM4 (a decomposing microorganism) that is widely sold in agricultural shops with water
- Sprinkle powdered insecticide to prevent ureth and puppy attack
- Cover the hole with soil and let the fertilizer break down first
- It will take at least 2 weeks for the fertilizer to break down properly.
Coffee Bean Nursery
We will discuss the method of generative seeding and graft vegetative seeding for coffee bean seedlings
Planting Coffee Seeds
The next stage of how to grow coffee is to plant the seeds into the planting holes that have been prepared previously. The things that must be considered are as follows:
- Water the seedlings first before transferring them to the planting hole
- Transplanting seedlings in the afternoon to avoid wilted plants in the afternoon heat
- Complete planting the seedlings one time at a time
- Make a circular mound of loose soil around the base of the plant so that water is easily absorbed and does not stagnate
- Immediately water the seedlings that have been planted again
- Perform embroidery for the first 2 weeks, namely selecting dead or sick and abnormal plants to be replaced with new seeds.
When finished, the next step is plant care
Maintenance of Coffee Plants
It is also an important part of how to grow coffee because the care of the coffee plant will affect the yield of its fruit as well. Well, there are several steps to take care of coffee plants.
Watering is done periodically, can be 2 weeks if the dry season. Although coffee plants can still survive with a little water, it would be better if watered because it can spur plant growth and development. Make sure that water does not stagnate around the stems for a long time, as this can cause root rot.
Weeding is also carried out regularly. In the rainy season, shade plants can be reduced by leaves so that the soil below is not too moist.
This supplementary fertilization is carried out so that plant development is faster. Namely using NPK fertilizer. The trick is that NPK fertilizer is dissolved in water with a ratio of 2 glasses of NPK to 35 liters of water. Then it is evenly distributed on each plant. Do it every 2 weeks, that is, after watering it. In the rainy season, supplementary fertilization with NPK can be reduced.
Once a year, coffee plants need to be given a basic fertilizer again. Especially when it bears fruit later, the interval for re-applying basic fertilizers can be shortened to only once every 6-8 months. The fertilizers used are still the same, namely manure and compost. The trick is to dig the soil around the roots of the coffee tree at a distance of 60-100 cm. The depth can be 30 cm then do it like the basic fertilizer method mentioned above.
Harvesting coffee beans can be done after the plants are about 2.5 – 3 years after planting. In graft plants it can be even faster. Generally, the first coffee harvest was still small. Over time, with the increasing number of tree branches, the harvest results will increase. Coffee plants are not fully harvested at one time because the fruit will not ripen simultaneously. Therefore, it can take up to a month or more during the coffee harvest. Starting around May and June. (how to maximize coffee harvest multiplied) For maximum results, choose coffee cherries that are red and old because they will increase sales results. and pick the coffee cherries that are not ripe in the future after red.